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The Ateco code is an alphanumeric combination that identifies an economical activity. The letters identify the macro-economic sector while the numbers (from two to six digits) represent, with varying degrees of detail, the specific divisions and sub-categories of the sectors themselves. The new Ateco 2007 classification has been in force since 1 January 2008, approved by ISTAT (National Statistics Institute) in close collaboration with the Revenue Agency, the Chambers of Commerce and with the other bodies, ministries and business associations concerned. With the 2007 Ateco codes, the same classification of economic activities is therefore adopted for statistical, tax and social security purposes, in a process of simplification of the information managed by public administrations and institutions.

Source: Codiceateco


Certified Measurement & Verification Professionals (CMVP) are a worldwide recognised group of individuals who measure and verify energy usage and energy requirements of building systems, industrial processes, parts of a building.

They develop metrics so that energy usage is measured, savings are verified, and investment in energy, water, demand management, retrofit, and renewable energy projects can be evaluated and prioritized.

Source: AEE Center


Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power -CHP), is the concurrent production of electricity or mechanical power and useful thermal energy (heating and/or cooling) from a single source of energy.

A type of distributed generation, which, unlike central station generation, is located at or near the point of consumption.

A suite of technologies that can use a variety of fuels to generate electricity or power at the point of use, allowing the heat that would normally be lost in the power generation process to be recovered to provide needed heating and/or cooling.

CHP technology can be deployed quickly, cost-effectively, and with few geographic limitations. CHP can use a variety of fuels, both fossil- and renewable-based. It has been employed for many years, mostly in industrial, large commercial, and institutional applications. CHP may not be widely recognized outside industrial, commercial, institutional, and utility circles, but it has quietly been providing highly efficient electricity and process heat to some of the most vital industries, largest employers, urban centres, and campuses in the United States. It is reasonable to expect CHP applications to operate at 65-75% efficiency, a large improvement over the national average of ~50% for these services when separately provided.


Dispatching Services Market, MSD

The Dispatching Services Market (MSD) is the tool through which Terna S.p.A. obtains the resources necessary for the management and control of the system (resolution of intra-zonal congestion, creation of the energy reserve, real-time balancing). On the MSD, Terna acts as a central counterparty and the accepted offers are remunerated at the price presented (pay-as-bid).

Source: GME Energy Markets Manager


The Plan, in line with the guidelines of the European Commission for compilation, reports in the second chapter the national targets for the reduction of primary and final energy consumption, specifying the savings in the final uses of energy expected to 2020 by individual economic sector and by main energy efficiency promotion tool.

Source: ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development


The Energy Management Expert (EGE) is a modern and interdisciplinary professional figure called to act in the context of the new European energy market, based on principles such as the liberalisation of markets, the energy and environmental measures contained in the climate-energy package (20-20-20), a skills-based qualification system and a harmonised framework of rules. The EGE is called to better interpret the changes that have affected the sector in the last decade, changing the balance of interests between consumers, energy suppliers, network managers and the Energy Service Company.

The energy management expert combines the technical skills of a solid foundation in environmental, economic-financial, business management and communication matters. It also naturally lends itself to the role of head of the energy management system within the ISO 50001 standard.


Energy audit

Energy diagnosis is the most qualified tool to analyse the energy management framework of an activity (industrial, services, primary and tertiary) and represents a systematic evaluation of how energy is used from the point where it is acquired to its point of end use.

Energy diagnosis identifies how energy is managed and consumed, namely:

  • how and where energy enters the system, plant, unit or part of equipment;
  • how it is distributed and where it is used;
  • how it is transformed between the entry points and its uses;
  • how it can be used more effectively and more efficiently.

Source: ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development


Energy intensive companies

Energy-intensive companies are those with annual electricity consumption that exceed the thresholds defined by specific Ministerial Decrees. Companies that fall under this definition and that, with reference only to the electricity consumed in the calendar year, meet certain conditions, are given important concessions in the form of relief on the general system charges paid in the bill.

Energy-consuming companies are subjects to carry out compulsory energy diagnosis at least every 4 years as stated in Legislative Decree 102/2014.

From 1st January 2018 the minimum annual consumption threshold is equal to 1 GWh, against the previous 2.4 GWh, the company must also have a ratio between the actual cost of electricity consumed and turnover equal to at least 2% and a primary ATECO manufacturing code (10.XX – 33.XX).

Energy Manager

An energy manager, as the term suggests, is a person who has the task of managing anything that concerns energy within a company, a public body, or more generally a structure, checking consumption, optimising and promoting interventions aimed at energy efficiency and the use of renewable sources. In the case of a complex organisation, the energy manager will preferably be an executive at the helm of a group of mainly technical people.



An ESCo is therefore a company capable of providing all the technical, commercial and financial services necessary to carry out an energy efficiency intervention, assuming the costs of the investment and the risk of no savings, against the stipulation of a contract in which their profits are established. It therefore does not limit itself to simply providing the financial resources with which the entrepreneur will carry out the investment independently because they must in fact possess, on their own or through related groups, the adequate technical skills and the financial resources necessary to achieve what has been commissioned to them, also offering flexibility based on the needs of whoever who requested the related services.

The ESCo meet the requirements outlined in the reference standard UNI CEI 11352-2014 .



GME organises and manages the electricity, natural gas and environmental markets. As part of the energy sector liberalisation process, Gestore dei Mercati Energetici S.p.A. (GME) was initially entrusted with the organisation and economic management of the wholesale electricity market, in compliance with the principles of neutrality, transparency, objectivity and competition.

Source: GME Energy Markets Manager


The Energy Services Manager (GSE S.p.A.) is a company fully owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finance (pursuant to art. 3 paragraph 4 of Legislative Decree no. 79/99) which operates for the promotion and development of renewable sources and energy efficiency.
The strategic and operational guidelines are dictated by the Ministry of Economic Development which exercises, jointly with the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the rights of the shareholder.
The company operates in accordance with the resolutions issued by the Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and the Environment and is subject to control by the Court of Auditors with the methods set out in art. 12 of the law L. 21 March 1958, n. 259.
The main purpose of the company is o sustainable development, mainly in Italy, for which it provides multiple services, promoting renewable sources and energy efficiency.

Source: GSE

Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 is the subset of the fourth industrial revolution that concerns industry. The fourth industrial revolution encompasses areas which are not normally classified as an industry, such as smart cities, for instance. Although the terms “industry 4.0” and “fourth industrial revolution” are often used interchangeably, “industry 4.0” factories have machines which are augmented with wireless connectivity and sensors, connected to a system that can visualise the entire production line and make decisions on its own.

In essence, industry 4.0 is the trend towards automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies and processes which include cyber-physical systems (CPS), the internet of things (IoT), industrial internet of things (IIOT), cloud computing, cognitive computing and artificial intelligence.

The concept includes:

  • Smart manufacturing
  • Smart factory
  • Lights out (manufacturing) also known as dark factories
  • Industrial internet of things also called internet of things for manufacturing

Industry 4.0 fosters what has been called a “smart factory”. Within modular structured smart factories, cyber-physical systems monitor physical processes, create a virtual copy of the physical world and make decentralized decisions. Over the Internet of Things, cyber-physical systems communicate and cooperate with each other and with humans in real-time both internally and across organizational services offered and used by participants of the value chain.

The determining factor is the pace of change. The correlation of the speed of technological development and, as a result, socio-economic and infrastructural transformations with human life allow us to state a qualitative leap in the speed of development, which marks a transition to a new time era.

Source: Wikipedia


The (interruptibility) service is an integral part of the defence system of the national grid and is one of the tools available to Terna for safe operation of the electricity system and in particular to mitigate the risk of power outages in the various conditions of operation.

In order to be among the customers assigned to the instant interruptibility service, a system is required UPDC (Load Disconnection Peripheral Unit).

Source: Terna

ISO 50001

The ISO standard focuses attention on the performance of the organisation, on the specific energy performance, and above all requires that the promotion of energy efficiency be considered along the entire distribution chain of the organisation and, an important novelty, that it is a requirement to ask your suppliers.
The standard is intended to provide businesses with a framework for integrating energy performance into the daily management of their activities; it also aims to promote best energy management practices and seeks to improve their management in the context of projects to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way, companies worldwide have a single standard available for the implementation of a univocal methodology to identify and implement improvements.

ISO 50001 develops the 4 phases of the cycle in as many sections: to address energy problems, the energy aspects of the organisation must be identified, choosing those that are deemed most significant, analysing and evaluating their critical points and weaknesses; the operational choices must then be defined, acting on the basis of the identified objectives (PLAN). After carrying out the identified measures (DO), the efficiency of these measures (CHECK) is assessed and any new weak points are analysed. On the basis of this control phase, the planning cycle begins again, defining new objectives (ACT).

An energy management system represents an important opportunity for anyone intending to successfully deal with energy aspects within their enterprise, because it allows them to:

  • have a systemic approach in the definition of energy objectives and in the identification of the tools suitable for their achievement;
  • identify opportunities for improvement;
  • ensure compliance with all the mandatory requirements;
  • reduce costs related to energy consumption.


Italian Legislative Decree 102 of 2014

Italian Legislative Decree 102/2014, in implementation of European Directive 27/12, defines a set of actions aimed at improving energy efficiency, in all sectors useful for achieving the national energy saving target by 2020.

This objective is equal to a reduction of 20 million TOE (equivalent tonnes of oil) in primary energy consumption, counted starting from 2010.

Compliance with the regulatory requirements contained in this decree by implementing an energy management system results in an increase in competitiveness, savings, an increase in efficiency and a reduction in waste that well justify the investment required.


Lead Auditor

The Lead Auditor possesses the knowledge and skills necessary to internally verify the company’s management system, but also how to conduct the 2nd party audit, with the verification of suppliers or any external company and that of 3rd party: the verification of another company by providing certification services.

Load Management

The load control is used to avoid exceeding the power supplied by the energy provider by contract, which would result in the non-preordained detachment of certain loads. To better manage consumption, it is necessary to command the opening or closing of a predefined list of loads, ordered according to a list of priorities that can be managed and updated.

Optimal management of the loads that are used to distribute the energy delivered without undesired consequences for the production firstly requires precise measurement of the general power at the delivery point: this can be achieved by reading the pulses coming from the meter or, with dedicated tools, measuring the power directly at the delivery point downstream of voltmetric (VT) and amperometric (CT) transducers.

The setting of thresholds and priorities is used to interrupt or reinsert the loads connected to the measuring instrument.

Load management is carried out with the forecast method. Disconnection occurs when the forecast of total consumption in the integration period, obtained by projecting the current absorption curve at the end of the period, tends to exceed the programmed limit. A particular algorithm allows maximum use of the energy available within the integration period, penalising the loads enabled for disconnection to a minimum.

Disconnection of the load is commanded as late as possible taking into account the amount of energy that can be recovered, switching it off, based on the weight of the load itself.

This control method is used to avoid annoying close disconnections and reconnections that would occur not considering the hysteresis of the individual loads. To avoid dangerous absorption peaks, due to the simultaneous re-ignition of several loads, the system provides for a gradual reintegration of the loads. The system also allows controlling of those loads which, in order to be disconnected or reconnected, require a certain system condition. For these loads, the intervention of the device can be inhibited if the digital inputs associated with them do not allow it (this is essential to manage users whose operation is linked to certain work phases).

Objective 20-20-20

The 2020 package is a set of binding rules aimed at ensuring that the EU achieves its climate and energy targets by 2020.

The package defines three main objectives:

  • a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (compared to 1990 levels)
  • 20% of the energy needs derived from renewable sources
  • a 20% improvement in energy efficiency.

The objectives of the strategy were set by EU leaders in 2007 and were transposed into national legislation in 2009. They are also the main objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth and the EU is taking initiatives in several areas to achieve them.

Source: European Commission

Obliged subjects

The term is often used indifferently to indicate different categories of companies which, however, should be distinguished on the basis of the obligation:

  • The subjects obliged to adopt the energy saving system of which the TEE are part are the distributors of electricity and natural gas with more than 50,000 end customers
  • The entities obliged to carry out an energy diagnosis at least every 4 years pursuant to Italian Legislative Decree 102/2014 are large companies and energy-intensive companies.

Source: ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development

Resolution 372/2017/R/eel and 422/2018/R/eel

A measure defining the criteria for allowing production units not already enabled (such as those powered by non-programmable renewable sources and distributed generation), the possibility of participating in the Dispatching Service Market (MSD) as part of pilot projects and approving the regulation prepared by Terna S.p.A. to allow the participation of mixed virtual units (consisting of production units not necessarily authorised and consumption units).

Source: Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment (ARERA)

Smart Grid

The Smart Grid represents an unprecedented opportunity to move the energy industry into a new era of reliability, availability, and efficiency that will contribute to our economic and environmental health. During the transition period, it will be critical to carry out testing, technology improvements, consumer education, development of standards and regulations, and information sharing between projects to ensure that the benefits we envision from the Smart Grid become a reality. The benefits associated with the Smart Grid include:

  • More efficient transmission of electricity
  • Quicker restoration of electricity after power disturbances
  • Reduced operations and management costs for utilities, and ultimately lower power costs for consumers
  • Reduced peak demand, which will also help lower electricity rates
  • Increased integration of large-scale renewable energy systems
    Better integration of customer-owner power generation systems, including renewable energy systems
  • Improved security

Today, an electricity disruption such as a blackout can have a domino effect—a series of failures that can affect banking, communications, traffic, and security. This is a particular threat in the winter, when homeowners can be left without heat. A smarter grid will add resiliency to our electric power System and make it better prepared to address emergencies such as severe storms, earthquakes, large solar flares, and terrorist attacks. Because of its two-way interactive capacity, the Smart Grid will allow for automatic rerouting when equipment fails or outages occur. This will minimize outages and minimize the effects when they do happen. When a power outage occurs, Smart Grid technologies will detect and isolate the outages, containing them before they become large-scale blackouts. The new technologies will also help ensure that electricity recovery resumes quickly and strategically after an emergency—routing electricity to emergency services first, for example. In addition, the Smart Grid will take greater advantage of customer-owned power generators to produce power when it is not available from utilities. By combining these “distributed generation” resources, a community could keep its health centre, police department, traffic lights, phone System, and grocery store operating during emergencies. In addition, the Smart Grid is a way to address an aging energy infrastructure that needs to be upgraded or replaced. It’s a way to address energy efficiency, to bring increased awareness to consumers about the connection between electricity use and the environment. And it’s a way to bring increased national security to our energy System—drawing on greater amounts of home-grown electricity that is more resistant to natural disasters and attack.

The Smart Grid is not just about utilities and technologies; it is about giving you the information and tools you need to make choices about your energy use. If you already manage activities such as personal banking from your home computer, imagine managing your electricity in a similar way. A smarter grid will enable an unprecedented level of consumer participation. For example, you will no longer have to wait for your monthly statement to know how much electricity you use. With a smarter grid, you can have a clear and timely picture of it. “Smart meters,” and other mechanisms, will allow you to see how much electricity you use, when you use it, and its cost. Combined with real-time pricing, this will allow you to save money by using less power when electricity is most expensive. While the potential benefits of the Smart Grid are usually discussed in terms of economics, national security, and renewable energy goals, the Smart Grid has the potential to help you save money by helping you to manage your electricity use and choose the best times to purchase electricity.



An energy storage system is a cluster of instruments, devices and management and monitoring logics aimed at absorbing and releasing electricity.
It is designed to work continuously, together with the network and it must have third parties connected to it that can alter the exchange with the network itself (intake and/or withdrawal).

Storage systems can be installed on:

  • PV plants (with incentives)
  • thermodynamic PV plant with incentives or asking for them
  • non PV renewable energy plants with incentives or asking for them
  • combined electricity and heat production plants formed by units for which is requested the acknowledgement as High Performance Cogeneration and/or that for White Certificates
  • plants that are powered by renewable energy

Source: GSE

System fees

Charges for fees intended to cover costs relating to activities of general interest for the electricity system or for the gas system paid by end customers

It includes fees intended to cover the following costs relating to activities of general interest for the electricity system paid by all end customers of the electricity service: nuclear safety measures and territorial compensation measures; incentives for renewable and similar sources; coverage of tariff concessions recognised for the railway sector; support for system research; coverage of the electric bonus (which however is not paid by customers who have been awarded the social bonus); coverage of subsidies for energy-intensive companies; integrations of smaller electricity companies and the promotion of energy efficiency.

In the detailed elements of the bill this item is differentiated between the energy quota and the fixed quota

It includes fees intended to cover the following costs relating to activities of general interest for the gas system which are paid by end customers of the gas service: to cover the gas bonus (which, however, is paid only by condominiums for domestic use); for the implementation of energy saving projects and the development of renewable sources in the gas sector and in support of the construction of district heating networks; to offset the marketing costs of retail; for mechanisms for recovering arrears charges in last resort services.

In the detailed elements of the bill this item is expressed in energy share and differentiated by consumption bands.

Source: ARERA


The “white certificates”, also called “Energy Efficiency Certificates” (TEE), attest to the achievement of energy savings through the application of efficient technologies and systems. They are issued by the Electricity Market Operator (GME) on the basis of the certifications of savings achieved, carried out by the Authority. A certificate is equivalent to saving 1 equivalent ton of oil (toe), which is the conventional unit of measurement commonly used in energy balances to express all energy sources taking into account their calorific value.

Source: Autorità energia

The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU)

The 2012 Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) establishes a set of binding measures to help the EU reach its 20% energy efficiency target by 2020. This means that overall EU energy consumption should be no more than 1483 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe) of primary energy or 1086 Mtoe of final energy. Under the directive, all EU countries are required to use energy more efficiently at all stages of the energy chain, including energy generation, transmission, distribution and end-use consumption.

In the context of the 2012 directive, a number of important measures have been adopted throughout the EU to improve energy efficiency in Europe, including

  • an annual reduction of 1.5% in national energy sales
  • EU countries making energy efficient renovations to at least 3% per year of buildings owned and occupied by central governments
  • national long-term renovation strategies for the building stock in each EU country
  • mandatory energy efficiency certificates accompanying the sale and rental of buildings
  • the preparation of national energy efficiency action plans (NEEAPs) every three years
  • minimum energy efficiency standards and labelling for a variety of products such as boilers, household appliances, lighting and televisions (energy label and ecodesign)
  • the planned rollout of close to 200 million smart meters for electricity and 45 million for gas by 2020
  • obligation schemes for energy companies to achieve yearly energy savings of 1.5% of annual sales to final consumers
  • large companies conducting energy audits at least every four years
  • protecting the rights of consumers to receive easy and free access to data on real-time and historical energy consumption

Source: European Commision


Trigeneration or combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) refers to the simultaneous generation of electricity and useful heating and cooling from the combustion of a fuel or a solar heat collector. The terms cogeneration and trigeneration can be also applied to the power systems generating simultaneously electricity, heat, and industrial chemicals – e.g., syngas or pure hydrogen.


UNI CEI 11352-2014

The UNI CEI 11352: 2014 standard defines the requirements for companies that provide energy services (ESCo). A certified ESCo is able to offer result guarantee contracts to its customers, and is remunerated on the basis of the savings achieved (Financing Through Third Parties). These contracts are spreading more and more, both in the industrial and civil sectors, because they allow companies to concentrate on their activities, relying on specialists in the sector for the management of auxiliary systems (boilers, cogenerators, inverters, compressed air plants, etc.) and with new financial resources (Third Party Financing, White Certificates).

Attention to the efficient use of energy is constantly growing: from the Ministerial Decree March 7, 2012 which provides for compliance with the UNI CEI 11352 Standard for Energy Services companies operating with Public Administrations, up to Legislative Decree 102/2014 which provides for the mandatory UNI CEI 11352 certification for ESCos that offer the diagnosis service of energy and obtaining Energy Efficiency Certificates against savings achieved in the civil and industrial sector.

Source: CQY – Certiquality


A Load Disconnection Peripheral Unit is a device that allows the operator of a network to vary the load on the network itself, operating, in the event of an emergency, disconnection of the loads of users who have declared themselves available in this sense. It is an essential device to guarantee the interruptibility service.

UPS (Uninterruptible power supply)

An uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source or mains power fails. A UPS differs from an auxiliary or emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions, by supplying energy stored in batteries, supercapacitors, or flywheels. The on-battery run-time of most uninterruptible power sources is relatively short (only a few minutes) but sufficient to start a standby power source or properly shut down the protected equipment. It is a type of continual power system.

A UPS is typically used to protect hardware such as computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss.



Mixed Enabled Virtual Units (MEVU), characterised by the presence of minor production units (both programmable or non-programmable), including storage systems, and consumption units.

They are relevant both for participation in the Dispatching Services Market (MSD) and the energy markets, therefore, a newly established dispatching point is associated with them. The counterparty for the supplying of the dispatching resources is the user of the dispatching point: owner of the dispatching itself, and it is always the BSP.

Source: Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment (ARERA) RESOLUTION 2 AUGUST 2018 422/2018 / R / EEL


Gross added value (VAL) for the enterprise is the gross value added at the cost of the factors, i.e. the VAL at market prices net of any indirect taxes, plus any subsidies.

Source: Communication from the European Commission

Framework for State aid for environmental and energy 2014-2020 (2014 / C 200/01)

White Certificates

The “white certificates”, also called “Energy Efficiency Certificates” (TEE), attest to the achievement of energy savings through the application of efficient technologies and systems. They are issued by the Electricity Market Operator (GME) on the basis of the certifications of savings achieved, carried out by the Authority. A certificate is equivalent to saving 1 equivalent ton of oil (toe), which is the conventional unit of measurement commonly used in energy balances to express all energy sources taking into account their calorific value.

Source: Autorità energia